archive-pr.com » PR » J » JAVIER.EST.PR

Total: 369

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • video | Javier Arbona
    lots of interesting stuff For the curious things have been a little slow around here while I have been developing an article for an upcoming number of Architectural Design guest edited by David Gissen Spring 2010 issue Architectural Design Territory Architecture Beyond Environment The article is about the work of François Roche R Sie n and broadly about eco materialism in architecture as an alternative to sustainability Just to print a little teaser one of the early paragraphs reads as follows note that this might change throughout the editing process François Roche s work fits albeit uneasily into the production of a milieu of artists and architects several featured in this number united by an inquiry into the contradictions of modern nature a partly human artifice upon which we materially depend extending our being and life but also foreign and strange not to mention privatized in myriad forms 2 Water systems are the classic example of this The creations of Roche along with Stéphanie Lavaux and various other design partners over the years most recently operating under the R Sie n monicker seesaw between attempts at overcoming alienation the condition of being expropriated from our own means of laboring in and with the earth and also heightening it Needless to say I m excited for this article because it touches upon a lot of subjects I have been interested in the recent past some of which begin to be addressed in this older post In addition I have been in the process of getting a draft of my dissertation prospectus ready Yes For the heck of it I ll share an intro paragraph here Again the caveat applies that this is an early draft and could change after my committee takes a whack at it In this nutgraph I am referring to California cities and their proposed or established post military parks In this project I propose that a number of these neo Picturesque parks overlaid onto former military spaces create a mutually supporting geography of private economic gain and imperial power These parks seductively employ symbolic references to military heroism in a purportedly public landscape situating memories of by gone place and faux montages of Arcadian nature This new geography is opportune and opportunistic The zones I want to study are cleavages where visitors might get the thrill of stumbling upon something that they interpret they weren t supposed to see Cold War secrets lost amidst a ruinous landscape for example and yet it was planted there for them all along How ideological landscape features and visitors come to find one another while boosting private investment will make up the substance of this study Meanwhile other things are in store like a book review for Historical Geography I am also beginning to prepare a summer yeah summer course for 2010 provisionally titled Cities for Sale Global Real Estate and Urban Politics with apologies to Chester Hartman for cribbing from his book City for Sale Needless to say the months ahead look pretty busy Stay tuned for new material Just add the RSS feed to your reader New updates will also be announced via Twitter just ask to follow and I ll unlock it for you if you re not a marketing bot and of course Bezoar For now I ll leave you with something else from the Bezoar collection an index of national pride Propagate Click to email Opens in new window Click to print Opens in new window Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Reddit Opens in new window Share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on Google Opens in new window Like this Like Loading Posted on 2009 10 02 2009 10 14 by javier Posted in architects architecture California geography landscape urbanism video work Tagged bezoar rsie thesis Leave a comment Mystic River Bascule Bridge Rises and Lowers Propagate Click to email Opens in new window Click to print Opens in new window Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Reddit Opens in new window Share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on Google Opens in new window Like this Like Loading Posted on 2009 06 16 by javier Posted in architecture geography video Tagged bridge harbor infrastructure new england Leave a comment Hand on Your Heart Video And now a short interlude for some musical satiation Some of my friends know how much I love the sounds of Jose Gonzalez If you ve followed this blog of late you might have seen that I am also interested in sharing with you the musical tones of diasporas of all sorts These are sometimes the sounds of the geography of labor flows or of persecutions or likewise the musical chronicles of uneven development They re also the musical results of globalization forcing commercial aural geographies one way but people down below reinventing it another way so to speak Anyway enough rambling but feel free to peruse the music category here Himself a first generation Swede of displaced parents from Argentina one thing that Gonzalez is known for is how he mutates other people s songs through his guitar His style is said to be inspired by Cuba s Silvio Rodriguez who by the way was just denied an entry visa into the US for Pete Seeger s 90th birthday way to reform Now take a look at this one First Australia s Kylie Minogue bubbles through a plaintive break up song put your hand on your heart and tell me it s all over But then see how Gonzalez transforms it into the melancholic song it probably had to be anyway Propagate Click to email Opens in new window Click to print Opens in new window Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Reddit Opens in new window Share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on Google Opens in new window Like this Like Loading Posted on 2009 05 05 2009 05 05 by javier Posted in geography music video Tagged sad 3 Comments La Perla New song video from Calle 13 and Rubén Blades an ode to the extramural informally settled area of La Perla San Juan Puerto Rico Propagate Click to email Opens in new window Click to print Opens in new window Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Reddit Opens in new window Share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on Google Opens in new window Like this Like Loading Posted on 2009 05 01 by javier Posted in city everyday geography landscape music urbanism video Tagged la perla reggaeton salsa san juan Changui video 3 Rap Changui from koimogenos A Sunday installment of the youtube network geographies A Cuban live son rap mashup More from NME here Propagate Click to email Opens in new window Click to print Opens in new window Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Reddit Opens in new window Share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on Google Opens in new window Like this Like Loading Posted on 2009 04 05 2009 04 05 by javier Posted in geography music video Tagged music video youtube Architecture imagined as ecological To coincide with the Ecological Urbanism Conference at the Harvard GSD Not so long ago I heard from a former student She was anguished and deciding between applying to one out of two master s programs offered by a famous architectural institution that only let her apply to one Her choice was between a program specialized in housing and another one in sustainability What a choice How symbolic I thought of the quagmire we ve gotten ourselves into To dwell Or to survive Let s have a look The all encompassing discourse of sustainability is tangled up with global geopolitics at every turn but that discourse hides its tail What s worse is that sustainable architecture can be the proverbial greenwash as I think has become more than evident We would only have to pass a roll call of all the eco resorts done in years of economic fluidity Thinking about a sustainable practice is still supposed to arouse in us a moral instinct of how to satisfy our needs without compromising the needs of future generations The small house movement serves as a good example of an architecture informed by notions of what is said to be basic Our needs however are a mirage We know that they are essentially malleable They re subject to crass marketing manipulation They evolve through the sieves of culture and desire They re hard to pin down and it s no accident that capitalism pulls the rug from underneath us as soon as we try Besides unless the global economic crisis ends up destroying capitalism we satisfy our so called needs through an increasingly global economy despite the localist and nationalist fantasies some may have Even if we didn t have capitalism we d still have trade and subscribers to notions of Malthusian natural limits fail to adequately take this into account Sometimes the sustainability talk sounds to me even xenophobic in its suggestions that a certain number of citizens will have a right to the city blurring further the notion of what is natural Numerical limits Naturalization as in citizenship The ideologues of sustainability might deny that it is an issue of power and not morals but it is It has to do with who determines how much is a reasonable need for some and not others both at a local and global level By the way I m sorry for even using these terms like local and global because they pertain to imprecise scales especially when ecological processes are involved But none of this has slowed down the field of architecture As often times is clear in the works of architects like Michael Sorkin and other adherents to the ecological footprint design is an index of how much nature is judged to be fair and balanced according to some metric of consumption For one thing this implicitly privileges the first world consumer Architecture seems to always want to rectify say energy consumption but is usually passive or silent about the overabundant economic resources of its patrons except to sometimes mildly chastise their bad taste For another thing the implicit focus on consumers of energy of resources of food validates the continual restoration of a global project of resource and space distribution Architecture and planning help with the order and design of this distribution but practitioners can t face it Sustainable architecture has circumscribed itself to an environmental crisis but not a geopolitical one probably so as to not offend any clients The economic crisis has hit architects very hard and it partially evinces how interlaced the bubble economy and ecological principles were We can t even look at now historic images of green buildings in Dubai without a painful grimace The mythical rupture with the past rears its head again But what is the global idea of self proclaimed green architecture How do we see nature and our uses of it through the representations made by these forms of architecture I think we can identify two general responses to the questions Both treat the environmental crisis as a problem whose solution lies in addressing consumption As David Gissen points out pdf both responses also treat the natural and the social as two separate spheres To this we should also add that both responses reassert an age old divorce between city and country at the expense of the country and the gain of the city By the way let me stop here and address what might be a big protest in the mind of the reader I suspect that even when flashing images of production in the form of vertical farms and windmills the real anxiety beneath the image is about how we might sustain our first world consumption not create say a more bearable life for the actual human laborers that will compose the new rurban peasant class in these future cities let alone even think about what the future countryside will be like hint it ll be more brutal not less In addition the mode of thinking of green or ecological urbanism ultimately defends a hazy abstract idea of cities at all costs as inherently good for the planet And defends a notion of the world in which first world cities do not yield their place as the governators of finance power truth migrations ideas But let s continue The first of these responses in the architecture world is abstention This architecture imagines a world without humans Architecture therefore is our UFO for visiting a planet that we can only damage and we should not touch No surprise either that architects are so obsessed with documenting the design of post apocalyptic bunkers temporary military structures inflatables of all sorts and polar research stations no worry I love em too The second trend which seems to dominate architects imaginations nowadays even more is a strategy that attempts a metabolic relation with the planet supposing that idealized science as if science wasn t ideological can reveal the correct balance I admit my own enthusiastic participation in this trend too As much as anyone I still demand and expect a response to our modernity s crass relation to the environment Nevertheless the current architectural operations proposing this kind of benevolent cycling base their idea of nature on a nice Eden Have you ever seen any green architects show renderings of their green cities in the fall or winter or on a cloudy day or in any inclement weather for that matter This is no mere coincidence These ideas of nature are so rooted in the historic first world domestication of the rudeness of nature that their authors confuse socialized nature with primeval nature itself If we only let nature work it would give us everything we need to consume Did everyone think that so much lushness and farming envisioned in the city aren t going to open up new Pandora s boxes of infectious diseases and sanitation problems as we come into contact with more manure more bacteria and more wild animals that we urbanites are not at all naturalized to Of course that s all fine and dandy our powerful scientific establishment will hopefully take care of it but if you thought that inoculations would be fairly distributed to the urban world population think again This message brought to you by Pfizer Both of these architectural trends idealize nature as divorced from the economy society and politics Both think of nature as a self regenerating realm They distort history because they forget that nature has always been social starting with how as Donna Haraway among others has articulated the body itself inside and out has evolved through survival mechanisms necessitated by a larger totality Worse of all as Gissen also points out see Anxious Climate pdf architects in these camps seem to isolate in their minds the knowledge necessary for their design enterprise from what they know about the nature they conceptualize We have to ask ourselves how do we even know about the environmental crisis in the first place if not through the tools satellites computers genetic tests that reveal it These tools of course are part and parcel of the industrial revolution that brought on the crisis itself while at the same time strains of green architecture use them to measure flows of energy quantify wastes produce renderings and wire buildings throughout with the high tech communications that we demand As Gissen says In attempting to maintain an imagined separate natural world we have proliferated a messy network of links between nature and society Or in other words it s harder to isolate society from nature than what we want to think or shall we go on this voyage without navigation tools Of course some architects still latch onto that sort of radical back to nature primitivism As countless theorists have revealed we re dealing with a natural world that for some might seem implausible because of how artificial it actually is Another aside we have to remind ourselves that most of the ideas of nature we transact with are the product of a highly urbanized and male realm of thought written by many men that have constantly liberated themselves from many direct encounters with nature thanks to the unjust division of work and the sexes starting with child rearing itself But let s keep going What we need then is a more fine tuned approach In other words if these architectural options simulate nature as something we can consume in balanced ways or in some sort of moderation or absurdly not consume it at all the alternative must be an awareness that the current crisis is not one of environmental destruction but of environmental production Where we have failed is at producing livable natures for oursleves Of course you might protest that many landscape architects and theorists have been discussing the production of nature for some time now especially following the work of James Corner or his writings but that s not what I m talking about So far discussions on the production of nature in architecture have seemed to remain stuck implying an ideal first nature somewhere out there beyond the second nature that we produce as well as suggesting that second nature can be somehow shorn from its market relations We have so far failed to understand and work into architectural production a key insight from Neil Smith following Marx i e that under capitalism second nature produces and comes to substitute first nature Obviously this point opens up a much larger series of questions but in the interest of time those won t be addressed at this moment

    Original URL path: http://javier.est.pr/category/video/ (2015-12-27)
    Open archived version from archive

  • capitalism | Javier Arbona
    I think many of you know this Geoff Manaugh s laudable bldgblog architectural conjecture urban speculation landscape futures In addition to those Dezeen Interactive Architecture Pruned DailyDose and MoCoLoco a modern and contemporary design blog seem to coalesce at the top of many lists And then we have the one and only Architecture for Humanity s Cameron Sinclair who seems to pop up everywhere More than a blogger he epitomizes the digitally enhanced professional Of course Archinect is pretty difficult to compare as it is a network of websites under the tutelage of Paul Petrunia that includes its news log which is like saying an old school blog the spaceinvading image tumblelog and the school blog project Full disclosure I ve been the chief editor at Archinect and continue to be informally affiliated And finally you then have the utmost popular though not exclusively architectural Worldchanging Treehugger Curbed and Gothamist blogs which actually pay salaries at least to some of their bloggers I believe All these websites can be approximately ten to up to eight hundred times more popular I estimate than blogs produced by academic types like us with academic looking commentary or with student projects The high quality of these top blogs is notable and we can see that their meaning has found its way to smaller critical ventures as with varnelis and htcexperiments debating fictional architecture through bldgblog or my own recent interest in informality It s proof of the influence of these blogs But what we haven t come to relate into our discussion is how these class A bloggers establish a networked presence that sustains and nourishes their perch at the top of the pyramid and do so at the basic level by constantly laboring for free in digital mines like Twitter Facebook Tumblr Archinect commentary boards and incessantly tapping on their phones with their various online networks What I think is interesting is not how much more popular the popular blogs are though I think the numbers are quite staggering if they are anywhere close to correct But what I think is important is that alongside the limits of digital rights talk I don t feel that we have developed anything remotely like a critical consciousness toward the spatial relations of power on the web let alone figured out some way of carving a space for academic work that can be either independent or critical of those relations and begin to spatialize it on and off line like the Berkman Center does Nor have we begun to articulate in a serious way a critique of the ideologies of the dominant strains in the blogosphere and perhaps it is because we re still caught in a fantasy of evenness cutting across the web still stuck in the shadow of Stewart Brand and the Whole Earth see Turner 2006 Just to give you one sample tweet from a fellow blogger who writes for both a national publication online and his own sustainability blog one last point news orgs assume you are part of a news ecosystem People draw info from their own unruly mob of sources I disagree with such notions of an unruly mob It s a rule bound mob What s worse is that we continually miss the opportunity to actively investigate these rules as both social and spatial especially as they course from the web into social life and back One can already imagine a day when some will look back and still see an idealized Agora that never existed What might be needed now is an architectural imagination that can problematize the cartographies and ideologies of the web showing that far from the boundary less stew an ideal conflict less space they are bordered spatialized and conflicting in particular ways probably along some lines of labor mobility and flexibility Elsewhere Mapping has been done now what about the simple where Does architecture have something to contribute beyond the green proselytizing the fetishism of informal architecture the datamining and the spectacular forms of dezeen How would we begin this project Well in a way as much as I admire my friends that throw Postopolis there s something about it that doesn t seem to jive for me As a space of encounters it replicates the privileged space of the blogosphere which as I discussed above is in itself hidden by an informal communalism In a way they curate an eternal present They do it extremely well But if one wanted to investigate some of the hidden spaces of the web and start to investigate our little understood lack of spatial rights we might actually begin by inviting bloggers from dead architecture blogs and ask them to talk about their own history Why did they stop What are the limits of blogging as it currently stands In other words we can begin to develop a critical memory in a space that does not seem to forget anything Notes On the point of multiple forms of labor see Terranova 2003 It is about specific forms of production Web design multimedia production digital services and so on but is also about forms of labor we do not immediately recognize as such chat real life stories mailing lists amateur newsletters and so on These types of cultural and technical labor are not produced by capitalism in any direct cause and effect fashion that is they have not developed simply as an answer to the economic needs of capital However they have developed in relation to the expansion of the cultural industries and are part of a process of economic experimentation with the creation of monetary value out of knowledge culture affect For more examples of the discourse of blogger rights speech protection and consumer rights see EFF s Blogger Rights or the Center for Digital Democracy s project on Digital Marketing Privacy the Public Interest This digitally altered image shows the selectivity of rights discourse accessed on the EFF website on April 5 2009 An example The Net Generation in particular recognizes itself in the story of this self developing city which is powered by the collective intelligence and individual aspirations of hundreds of thousands of people From Taking the Slum Out of Dharavi in airoots February 21 2009 Accessed on April 12 2009 On this subject see Jo Guldi s Reinventing the Academic Journal First Take Down Your Website on inscape February 7 2009 Last accessed on April 12 2009 Guldi explains how the academy could begin to spatialize itself on line as a kind of endowed I assume curator of the glut of online content but so far journals have approached the web with some trepidation This work was presented at the MIT HTC Forum on April 7 2009 as part of Blogitecture Architecture on the Internet with Kazys Varnelis and the author and moderated by Mark Jarzombek Audio slide show available on Vimeo thanks to Kazys Varnelis New modifications and edits for clarity have been introduced in this version The title of this talk and post comes from typical spam that I receive multiple times a day but also relates to the subject matter at hand Additional Reading Janet Abrams and Peter Hall Editors 2006 Else Where Mapping New Cartologies of Networks and Territories University of Minnesota Design Institute Javier Arbona 2009 Revisit the Known World javierest February 23 Jo Guldi 2009 The Age of Digital Citation unimaginable inscape April 8 link 2009 Reinventing the Academic Journal unimaginable inscape February 7 link Mary Madden Sydney Jones 2008 Networked Workers Pew Internet and American Life Project Washington DC September 24 link Tiziana Terranova 2003 Free Labour Producing Culture for the Digital Economy electronic book review 6 20 link Fred Turner 2006 From Counterculture to Cyberculture Stewart Brand the Whole Earth Network and the Rise of Digital Utopianism Chicago University of Chicago Press link More sources consulted for this project are bookmarked at http delicious com javierarbona for mit Acknowledgements My thanks go to Anne R Kenney Cornell University s Carl A Kroch University Librarian for our enlightening and fortuitous conversation about digital archives and her knowledge of law profession blogs as we rode on a bus from New York city to Ithaca on March 21 2009 Plataforma Arquitectura s David Basulto aka Tricky was also a very generous email interlocutor as I thought out this talk and thanks to Cristobal García for putting us back in touch Kazys Varnelis although technically a co presenter in this instance was also a wonderful collaborator in the research leading up to the panel Amber Frid Jimenez dropped on me a number of very interesting articles after the talk which I still have to digest further And last but certainly not least at MIT many thanks to Mark Jarzombek Rebecca Uchill Sarah Katz and Kate Brearly for putting this event together and coordinating Propagate Click to email Opens in new window Click to print Opens in new window Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Reddit Opens in new window Share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on Google Opens in new window Like this Like Loading Posted on 2009 04 12 2009 04 12 by javier Posted in architecture geography politics Tagged blogs capitalism culture htc labor mit theory 1 Comment Architecture imagined as ecological To coincide with the Ecological Urbanism Conference at the Harvard GSD Not so long ago I heard from a former student She was anguished and deciding between applying to one out of two master s programs offered by a famous architectural institution that only let her apply to one Her choice was between a program specialized in housing and another one in sustainability What a choice How symbolic I thought of the quagmire we ve gotten ourselves into To dwell Or to survive Let s have a look The all encompassing discourse of sustainability is tangled up with global geopolitics at every turn but that discourse hides its tail What s worse is that sustainable architecture can be the proverbial greenwash as I think has become more than evident We would only have to pass a roll call of all the eco resorts done in years of economic fluidity Thinking about a sustainable practice is still supposed to arouse in us a moral instinct of how to satisfy our needs without compromising the needs of future generations The small house movement serves as a good example of an architecture informed by notions of what is said to be basic Our needs however are a mirage We know that they are essentially malleable They re subject to crass marketing manipulation They evolve through the sieves of culture and desire They re hard to pin down and it s no accident that capitalism pulls the rug from underneath us as soon as we try Besides unless the global economic crisis ends up destroying capitalism we satisfy our so called needs through an increasingly global economy despite the localist and nationalist fantasies some may have Even if we didn t have capitalism we d still have trade and subscribers to notions of Malthusian natural limits fail to adequately take this into account Sometimes the sustainability talk sounds to me even xenophobic in its suggestions that a certain number of citizens will have a right to the city blurring further the notion of what is natural Numerical limits Naturalization as in citizenship The ideologues of sustainability might deny that it is an issue of power and not morals but it is It has to do with who determines how much is a reasonable need for some and not others both at a local and global level By the way I m sorry for even using these terms like local and global because they pertain to imprecise scales especially when ecological processes are involved But none of this has slowed down the field of architecture As often times is clear in the works of architects like Michael Sorkin and other adherents to the ecological footprint design is an index of how much nature is judged to be fair and balanced according to some metric of consumption For one thing this implicitly privileges the first world consumer Architecture seems to always want to rectify say energy consumption but is usually passive or silent about the overabundant economic resources of its patrons except to sometimes mildly chastise their bad taste For another thing the implicit focus on consumers of energy of resources of food validates the continual restoration of a global project of resource and space distribution Architecture and planning help with the order and design of this distribution but practitioners can t face it Sustainable architecture has circumscribed itself to an environmental crisis but not a geopolitical one probably so as to not offend any clients The economic crisis has hit architects very hard and it partially evinces how interlaced the bubble economy and ecological principles were We can t even look at now historic images of green buildings in Dubai without a painful grimace The mythical rupture with the past rears its head again But what is the global idea of self proclaimed green architecture How do we see nature and our uses of it through the representations made by these forms of architecture I think we can identify two general responses to the questions Both treat the environmental crisis as a problem whose solution lies in addressing consumption As David Gissen points out pdf both responses also treat the natural and the social as two separate spheres To this we should also add that both responses reassert an age old divorce between city and country at the expense of the country and the gain of the city By the way let me stop here and address what might be a big protest in the mind of the reader I suspect that even when flashing images of production in the form of vertical farms and windmills the real anxiety beneath the image is about how we might sustain our first world consumption not create say a more bearable life for the actual human laborers that will compose the new rurban peasant class in these future cities let alone even think about what the future countryside will be like hint it ll be more brutal not less In addition the mode of thinking of green or ecological urbanism ultimately defends a hazy abstract idea of cities at all costs as inherently good for the planet And defends a notion of the world in which first world cities do not yield their place as the governators of finance power truth migrations ideas But let s continue The first of these responses in the architecture world is abstention This architecture imagines a world without humans Architecture therefore is our UFO for visiting a planet that we can only damage and we should not touch No surprise either that architects are so obsessed with documenting the design of post apocalyptic bunkers temporary military structures inflatables of all sorts and polar research stations no worry I love em too The second trend which seems to dominate architects imaginations nowadays even more is a strategy that attempts a metabolic relation with the planet supposing that idealized science as if science wasn t ideological can reveal the correct balance I admit my own enthusiastic participation in this trend too As much as anyone I still demand and expect a response to our modernity s crass relation to the environment Nevertheless the current architectural operations proposing this kind of benevolent cycling base their idea of nature on a nice Eden Have you ever seen any green architects show renderings of their green cities in the fall or winter or on a cloudy day or in any inclement weather for that matter This is no mere coincidence These ideas of nature are so rooted in the historic first world domestication of the rudeness of nature that their authors confuse socialized nature with primeval nature itself If we only let nature work it would give us everything we need to consume Did everyone think that so much lushness and farming envisioned in the city aren t going to open up new Pandora s boxes of infectious diseases and sanitation problems as we come into contact with more manure more bacteria and more wild animals that we urbanites are not at all naturalized to Of course that s all fine and dandy our powerful scientific establishment will hopefully take care of it but if you thought that inoculations would be fairly distributed to the urban world population think again This message brought to you by Pfizer Both of these architectural trends idealize nature as divorced from the economy society and politics Both think of nature as a self regenerating realm They distort history because they forget that nature has always been social starting with how as Donna Haraway among others has articulated the body itself inside and out has evolved through survival mechanisms necessitated by a larger totality Worse of all as Gissen also points out see Anxious Climate pdf architects in these camps seem to isolate in their minds the knowledge necessary for their design enterprise from what they know about the nature they conceptualize We have to ask ourselves how do we even know about the environmental crisis in the first place if not through the tools satellites computers genetic tests that reveal it These tools of course are part and parcel of the industrial revolution that brought on the crisis itself while at the same time strains of green architecture use them to measure flows of energy quantify wastes produce renderings and wire buildings throughout with the high tech communications that we demand As Gissen says In attempting to maintain an imagined separate natural world we have proliferated a messy network of links between nature and society Or in other words it s harder to isolate society from nature than what we want to think or shall

    Original URL path: http://javier.est.pr/tag/capitalism/ (2015-12-27)
    Open archived version from archive

  • ecology | Javier Arbona
    way I m sorry for even using these terms like local and global because they pertain to imprecise scales especially when ecological processes are involved But none of this has slowed down the field of architecture As often times is clear in the works of architects like Michael Sorkin and other adherents to the ecological footprint design is an index of how much nature is judged to be fair and balanced according to some metric of consumption For one thing this implicitly privileges the first world consumer Architecture seems to always want to rectify say energy consumption but is usually passive or silent about the overabundant economic resources of its patrons except to sometimes mildly chastise their bad taste For another thing the implicit focus on consumers of energy of resources of food validates the continual restoration of a global project of resource and space distribution Architecture and planning help with the order and design of this distribution but practitioners can t face it Sustainable architecture has circumscribed itself to an environmental crisis but not a geopolitical one probably so as to not offend any clients The economic crisis has hit architects very hard and it partially evinces how interlaced the bubble economy and ecological principles were We can t even look at now historic images of green buildings in Dubai without a painful grimace The mythical rupture with the past rears its head again But what is the global idea of self proclaimed green architecture How do we see nature and our uses of it through the representations made by these forms of architecture I think we can identify two general responses to the questions Both treat the environmental crisis as a problem whose solution lies in addressing consumption As David Gissen points out pdf both responses also treat the natural and the social as two separate spheres To this we should also add that both responses reassert an age old divorce between city and country at the expense of the country and the gain of the city By the way let me stop here and address what might be a big protest in the mind of the reader I suspect that even when flashing images of production in the form of vertical farms and windmills the real anxiety beneath the image is about how we might sustain our first world consumption not create say a more bearable life for the actual human laborers that will compose the new rurban peasant class in these future cities let alone even think about what the future countryside will be like hint it ll be more brutal not less In addition the mode of thinking of green or ecological urbanism ultimately defends a hazy abstract idea of cities at all costs as inherently good for the planet And defends a notion of the world in which first world cities do not yield their place as the governators of finance power truth migrations ideas But let s continue The first of these responses in the architecture world is abstention This architecture imagines a world without humans Architecture therefore is our UFO for visiting a planet that we can only damage and we should not touch No surprise either that architects are so obsessed with documenting the design of post apocalyptic bunkers temporary military structures inflatables of all sorts and polar research stations no worry I love em too The second trend which seems to dominate architects imaginations nowadays even more is a strategy that attempts a metabolic relation with the planet supposing that idealized science as if science wasn t ideological can reveal the correct balance I admit my own enthusiastic participation in this trend too As much as anyone I still demand and expect a response to our modernity s crass relation to the environment Nevertheless the current architectural operations proposing this kind of benevolent cycling base their idea of nature on a nice Eden Have you ever seen any green architects show renderings of their green cities in the fall or winter or on a cloudy day or in any inclement weather for that matter This is no mere coincidence These ideas of nature are so rooted in the historic first world domestication of the rudeness of nature that their authors confuse socialized nature with primeval nature itself If we only let nature work it would give us everything we need to consume Did everyone think that so much lushness and farming envisioned in the city aren t going to open up new Pandora s boxes of infectious diseases and sanitation problems as we come into contact with more manure more bacteria and more wild animals that we urbanites are not at all naturalized to Of course that s all fine and dandy our powerful scientific establishment will hopefully take care of it but if you thought that inoculations would be fairly distributed to the urban world population think again This message brought to you by Pfizer Both of these architectural trends idealize nature as divorced from the economy society and politics Both think of nature as a self regenerating realm They distort history because they forget that nature has always been social starting with how as Donna Haraway among others has articulated the body itself inside and out has evolved through survival mechanisms necessitated by a larger totality Worse of all as Gissen also points out see Anxious Climate pdf architects in these camps seem to isolate in their minds the knowledge necessary for their design enterprise from what they know about the nature they conceptualize We have to ask ourselves how do we even know about the environmental crisis in the first place if not through the tools satellites computers genetic tests that reveal it These tools of course are part and parcel of the industrial revolution that brought on the crisis itself while at the same time strains of green architecture use them to measure flows of energy quantify wastes produce renderings and wire buildings throughout with the

    Original URL path: http://javier.est.pr/tag/ecology/ (2015-12-27)
    Open archived version from archive

  • nature | Javier Arbona
    Architecture imagined as ecological To coincide with the Ecological Urbanism Conference at the Harvard GSD Not so long ago I heard from a former student She was anguished and deciding between applying to one out of two master s programs offered by a famous architectural institution that only let her apply to one Her choice was between a program specialized in housing and another one in sustainability What a choice How symbolic I thought of the quagmire we ve gotten ourselves into To dwell Or to survive Let s have a look The all encompassing discourse of sustainability is tangled up with global geopolitics at every turn but that discourse hides its tail What s worse is that sustainable architecture can be the proverbial greenwash as I think has become more than evident We would only have to pass a roll call of all the eco resorts done in years of economic fluidity Thinking about a sustainable practice is still supposed to arouse in us a moral instinct of how to satisfy our needs without compromising the needs of future generations The small house movement serves as a good example of an architecture informed by notions of what is said to be basic Our needs however are a mirage We know that they are essentially malleable They re subject to crass marketing manipulation They evolve through the sieves of culture and desire They re hard to pin down and it s no accident that capitalism pulls the rug from underneath us as soon as we try Besides unless the global economic crisis ends up destroying capitalism we satisfy our so called needs through an increasingly global economy despite the localist and nationalist fantasies some may have Even if we didn t have capitalism we d still have trade and subscribers to notions of Malthusian natural limits fail to adequately take this into account Sometimes the sustainability talk sounds to me even xenophobic in its suggestions that a certain number of citizens will have a right to the city blurring further the notion of what is natural Numerical limits Naturalization as in citizenship The ideologues of sustainability might deny that it is an issue of power and not morals but it is It has to do with who determines how much is a reasonable need for some and not others both at a local and global level By the way I m sorry for even using these terms like local and global because they pertain to imprecise scales especially when ecological processes are involved But none of this has slowed down the field of architecture As often times is clear in the works of architects like Michael Sorkin and other adherents to the ecological footprint design is an index of how much nature is judged to be fair and balanced according to some metric of consumption For one thing this implicitly privileges the first world consumer Architecture seems to always want to rectify say energy consumption but is usually passive or silent about the overabundant economic resources of its patrons except to sometimes mildly chastise their bad taste For another thing the implicit focus on consumers of energy of resources of food validates the continual restoration of a global project of resource and space distribution Architecture and planning help with the order and design of this distribution but practitioners can t face it Sustainable architecture has circumscribed itself to an environmental crisis but not a geopolitical one probably so as to not offend any clients The economic crisis has hit architects very hard and it partially evinces how interlaced the bubble economy and ecological principles were We can t even look at now historic images of green buildings in Dubai without a painful grimace The mythical rupture with the past rears its head again But what is the global idea of self proclaimed green architecture How do we see nature and our uses of it through the representations made by these forms of architecture I think we can identify two general responses to the questions Both treat the environmental crisis as a problem whose solution lies in addressing consumption As David Gissen points out pdf both responses also treat the natural and the social as two separate spheres To this we should also add that both responses reassert an age old divorce between city and country at the expense of the country and the gain of the city By the way let me stop here and address what might be a big protest in the mind of the reader I suspect that even when flashing images of production in the form of vertical farms and windmills the real anxiety beneath the image is about how we might sustain our first world consumption not create say a more bearable life for the actual human laborers that will compose the new rurban peasant class in these future cities let alone even think about what the future countryside will be like hint it ll be more brutal not less In addition the mode of thinking of green or ecological urbanism ultimately defends a hazy abstract idea of cities at all costs as inherently good for the planet And defends a notion of the world in which first world cities do not yield their place as the governators of finance power truth migrations ideas But let s continue The first of these responses in the architecture world is abstention This architecture imagines a world without humans Architecture therefore is our UFO for visiting a planet that we can only damage and we should not touch No surprise either that architects are so obsessed with documenting the design of post apocalyptic bunkers temporary military structures inflatables of all sorts and polar research stations no worry I love em too The second trend which seems to dominate architects imaginations nowadays even more is a strategy that attempts a metabolic relation with the planet supposing that idealized science as if science wasn t ideological can reveal the correct

    Original URL path: http://javier.est.pr/tag/nature/ (2015-12-27)
    Open archived version from archive

  • society | Javier Arbona
    a global project of resource and space distribution Architecture and planning help with the order and design of this distribution but practitioners can t face it Sustainable architecture has circumscribed itself to an environmental crisis but not a geopolitical one probably so as to not offend any clients The economic crisis has hit architects very hard and it partially evinces how interlaced the bubble economy and ecological principles were We can t even look at now historic images of green buildings in Dubai without a painful grimace The mythical rupture with the past rears its head again But what is the global idea of self proclaimed green architecture How do we see nature and our uses of it through the representations made by these forms of architecture I think we can identify two general responses to the questions Both treat the environmental crisis as a problem whose solution lies in addressing consumption As David Gissen points out pdf both responses also treat the natural and the social as two separate spheres To this we should also add that both responses reassert an age old divorce between city and country at the expense of the country and the gain of the city By the way let me stop here and address what might be a big protest in the mind of the reader I suspect that even when flashing images of production in the form of vertical farms and windmills the real anxiety beneath the image is about how we might sustain our first world consumption not create say a more bearable life for the actual human laborers that will compose the new rurban peasant class in these future cities let alone even think about what the future countryside will be like hint it ll be more brutal not less In addition the mode of thinking of green or ecological urbanism ultimately defends a hazy abstract idea of cities at all costs as inherently good for the planet And defends a notion of the world in which first world cities do not yield their place as the governators of finance power truth migrations ideas But let s continue The first of these responses in the architecture world is abstention This architecture imagines a world without humans Architecture therefore is our UFO for visiting a planet that we can only damage and we should not touch No surprise either that architects are so obsessed with documenting the design of post apocalyptic bunkers temporary military structures inflatables of all sorts and polar research stations no worry I love em too The second trend which seems to dominate architects imaginations nowadays even more is a strategy that attempts a metabolic relation with the planet supposing that idealized science as if science wasn t ideological can reveal the correct balance I admit my own enthusiastic participation in this trend too As much as anyone I still demand and expect a response to our modernity s crass relation to the environment Nevertheless the current architectural operations proposing this kind of benevolent cycling base their idea of nature on a nice Eden Have you ever seen any green architects show renderings of their green cities in the fall or winter or on a cloudy day or in any inclement weather for that matter This is no mere coincidence These ideas of nature are so rooted in the historic first world domestication of the rudeness of nature that their authors confuse socialized nature with primeval nature itself If we only let nature work it would give us everything we need to consume Did everyone think that so much lushness and farming envisioned in the city aren t going to open up new Pandora s boxes of infectious diseases and sanitation problems as we come into contact with more manure more bacteria and more wild animals that we urbanites are not at all naturalized to Of course that s all fine and dandy our powerful scientific establishment will hopefully take care of it but if you thought that inoculations would be fairly distributed to the urban world population think again This message brought to you by Pfizer Both of these architectural trends idealize nature as divorced from the economy society and politics Both think of nature as a self regenerating realm They distort history because they forget that nature has always been social starting with how as Donna Haraway among others has articulated the body itself inside and out has evolved through survival mechanisms necessitated by a larger totality Worse of all as Gissen also points out see Anxious Climate pdf architects in these camps seem to isolate in their minds the knowledge necessary for their design enterprise from what they know about the nature they conceptualize We have to ask ourselves how do we even know about the environmental crisis in the first place if not through the tools satellites computers genetic tests that reveal it These tools of course are part and parcel of the industrial revolution that brought on the crisis itself while at the same time strains of green architecture use them to measure flows of energy quantify wastes produce renderings and wire buildings throughout with the high tech communications that we demand As Gissen says In attempting to maintain an imagined separate natural world we have proliferated a messy network of links between nature and society Or in other words it s harder to isolate society from nature than what we want to think or shall we go on this voyage without navigation tools Of course some architects still latch onto that sort of radical back to nature primitivism As countless theorists have revealed we re dealing with a natural world that for some might seem implausible because of how artificial it actually is Another aside we have to remind ourselves that most of the ideas of nature we transact with are the product of a highly urbanized and male realm of thought written by many men that have constantly liberated themselves from many

    Original URL path: http://javier.est.pr/tag/society/ (2015-12-27)
    Open archived version from archive

  • urbanism | Javier Arbona
    production in the form of vertical farms and windmills the real anxiety beneath the image is about how we might sustain our first world consumption not create say a more bearable life for the actual human laborers that will compose the new rurban peasant class in these future cities let alone even think about what the future countryside will be like hint it ll be more brutal not less In addition the mode of thinking of green or ecological urbanism ultimately defends a hazy abstract idea of cities at all costs as inherently good for the planet And defends a notion of the world in which first world cities do not yield their place as the governators of finance power truth migrations ideas But let s continue The first of these responses in the architecture world is abstention This architecture imagines a world without humans Architecture therefore is our UFO for visiting a planet that we can only damage and we should not touch No surprise either that architects are so obsessed with documenting the design of post apocalyptic bunkers temporary military structures inflatables of all sorts and polar research stations no worry I love em too The second trend which seems to dominate architects imaginations nowadays even more is a strategy that attempts a metabolic relation with the planet supposing that idealized science as if science wasn t ideological can reveal the correct balance I admit my own enthusiastic participation in this trend too As much as anyone I still demand and expect a response to our modernity s crass relation to the environment Nevertheless the current architectural operations proposing this kind of benevolent cycling base their idea of nature on a nice Eden Have you ever seen any green architects show renderings of their green cities in the fall or winter or on a cloudy day or in any inclement weather for that matter This is no mere coincidence These ideas of nature are so rooted in the historic first world domestication of the rudeness of nature that their authors confuse socialized nature with primeval nature itself If we only let nature work it would give us everything we need to consume Did everyone think that so much lushness and farming envisioned in the city aren t going to open up new Pandora s boxes of infectious diseases and sanitation problems as we come into contact with more manure more bacteria and more wild animals that we urbanites are not at all naturalized to Of course that s all fine and dandy our powerful scientific establishment will hopefully take care of it but if you thought that inoculations would be fairly distributed to the urban world population think again This message brought to you by Pfizer Both of these architectural trends idealize nature as divorced from the economy society and politics Both think of nature as a self regenerating realm They distort history because they forget that nature has always been social starting with how as Donna Haraway among others has articulated the body itself inside and out has evolved through survival mechanisms necessitated by a larger totality Worse of all as Gissen also points out see Anxious Climate pdf architects in these camps seem to isolate in their minds the knowledge necessary for their design enterprise from what they know about the nature they conceptualize We have to ask ourselves how do we even know about the environmental crisis in the first place if not through the tools satellites computers genetic tests that reveal it These tools of course are part and parcel of the industrial revolution that brought on the crisis itself while at the same time strains of green architecture use them to measure flows of energy quantify wastes produce renderings and wire buildings throughout with the high tech communications that we demand As Gissen says In attempting to maintain an imagined separate natural world we have proliferated a messy network of links between nature and society Or in other words it s harder to isolate society from nature than what we want to think or shall we go on this voyage without navigation tools Of course some architects still latch onto that sort of radical back to nature primitivism As countless theorists have revealed we re dealing with a natural world that for some might seem implausible because of how artificial it actually is Another aside we have to remind ourselves that most of the ideas of nature we transact with are the product of a highly urbanized and male realm of thought written by many men that have constantly liberated themselves from many direct encounters with nature thanks to the unjust division of work and the sexes starting with child rearing itself But let s keep going What we need then is a more fine tuned approach In other words if these architectural options simulate nature as something we can consume in balanced ways or in some sort of moderation or absurdly not consume it at all the alternative must be an awareness that the current crisis is not one of environmental destruction but of environmental production Where we have failed is at producing livable natures for oursleves Of course you might protest that many landscape architects and theorists have been discussing the production of nature for some time now especially following the work of James Corner or his writings but that s not what I m talking about So far discussions on the production of nature in architecture have seemed to remain stuck implying an ideal first nature somewhere out there beyond the second nature that we produce as well as suggesting that second nature can be somehow shorn from its market relations We have so far failed to understand and work into architectural production a key insight from Neil Smith following Marx i e that under capitalism second nature produces and comes to substitute first nature Obviously this point opens up a much larger series of questions but in the interest

    Original URL path: http://javier.est.pr/tag/urbanism/ (2015-12-27)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Architecture imagined as ecological | Javier Arbona
    is usually passive or silent about the overabundant economic resources of its patrons except to sometimes mildly chastise their bad taste For another thing the implicit focus on consumers of energy of resources of food validates the continual restoration of a global project of resource and space distribution Architecture and planning help with the order and design of this distribution but practitioners can t face it Sustainable architecture has circumscribed itself to an environmental crisis but not a geopolitical one probably so as to not offend any clients The economic crisis has hit architects very hard and it partially evinces how interlaced the bubble economy and ecological principles were We can t even look at now historic images of green buildings in Dubai without a painful grimace The mythical rupture with the past rears its head again But what is the global idea of self proclaimed green architecture How do we see nature and our uses of it through the representations made by these forms of architecture I think we can identify two general responses to the questions Both treat the environmental crisis as a problem whose solution lies in addressing consumption As David Gissen points out pdf both responses also treat the natural and the social as two separate spheres To this we should also add that both responses reassert an age old divorce between city and country at the expense of the country and the gain of the city By the way let me stop here and address what might be a big protest in the mind of the reader I suspect that even when flashing images of production in the form of vertical farms and windmills the real anxiety beneath the image is about how we might sustain our first world consumption not create say a more bearable life for the actual human laborers that will compose the new rurban peasant class in these future cities let alone even think about what the future countryside will be like hint it ll be more brutal not less In addition the mode of thinking of green or ecological urbanism ultimately defends a hazy abstract idea of cities at all costs as inherently good for the planet And defends a notion of the world in which first world cities do not yield their place as the governators of finance power truth migrations ideas But let s continue The first of these responses in the architecture world is abstention This architecture imagines a world without humans Architecture therefore is our UFO for visiting a planet that we can only damage and we should not touch No surprise either that architects are so obsessed with documenting the design of post apocalyptic bunkers temporary military structures inflatables of all sorts and polar research stations no worry I love em too The second trend which seems to dominate architects imaginations nowadays even more is a strategy that attempts a metabolic relation with the planet supposing that idealized science as if science wasn t ideological can reveal the correct balance I admit my own enthusiastic participation in this trend too As much as anyone I still demand and expect a response to our modernity s crass relation to the environment Nevertheless the current architectural operations proposing this kind of benevolent cycling base their idea of nature on a nice Eden Have you ever seen any green architects show renderings of their green cities in the fall or winter or on a cloudy day or in any inclement weather for that matter This is no mere coincidence These ideas of nature are so rooted in the historic first world domestication of the rudeness of nature that their authors confuse socialized nature with primeval nature itself If we only let nature work it would give us everything we need to consume Did everyone think that so much lushness and farming envisioned in the city aren t going to open up new Pandora s boxes of infectious diseases and sanitation problems as we come into contact with more manure more bacteria and more wild animals that we urbanites are not at all naturalized to Of course that s all fine and dandy our powerful scientific establishment will hopefully take care of it but if you thought that inoculations would be fairly distributed to the urban world population think again This message brought to you by Pfizer Both of these architectural trends idealize nature as divorced from the economy society and politics Both think of nature as a self regenerating realm They distort history because they forget that nature has always been social starting with how as Donna Haraway among others has articulated the body itself inside and out has evolved through survival mechanisms necessitated by a larger totality Worse of all as Gissen also points out see Anxious Climate pdf architects in these camps seem to isolate in their minds the knowledge necessary for their design enterprise from what they know about the nature they conceptualize We have to ask ourselves how do we even know about the environmental crisis in the first place if not through the tools satellites computers genetic tests that reveal it These tools of course are part and parcel of the industrial revolution that brought on the crisis itself while at the same time strains of green architecture use them to measure flows of energy quantify wastes produce renderings and wire buildings throughout with the high tech communications that we demand As Gissen says In attempting to maintain an imagined separate natural world we have proliferated a messy network of links between nature and society Or in other words it s harder to isolate society from nature than what we want to think or shall we go on this voyage without navigation tools Of course some architects still latch onto that sort of radical back to nature primitivism As countless theorists have revealed we re dealing with a natural world that for some might seem implausible because of how artificial it actually is

    Original URL path: http://javier.est.pr/2009/04/04/architecture-imagined-as-ecological/?replytocom=84 (2015-12-27)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Architecture imagined as ecological | Javier Arbona
    usually passive or silent about the overabundant economic resources of its patrons except to sometimes mildly chastise their bad taste For another thing the implicit focus on consumers of energy of resources of food validates the continual restoration of a global project of resource and space distribution Architecture and planning help with the order and design of this distribution but practitioners can t face it Sustainable architecture has circumscribed itself to an environmental crisis but not a geopolitical one probably so as to not offend any clients The economic crisis has hit architects very hard and it partially evinces how interlaced the bubble economy and ecological principles were We can t even look at now historic images of green buildings in Dubai without a painful grimace The mythical rupture with the past rears its head again But what is the global idea of self proclaimed green architecture How do we see nature and our uses of it through the representations made by these forms of architecture I think we can identify two general responses to the questions Both treat the environmental crisis as a problem whose solution lies in addressing consumption As David Gissen points out pdf both responses also treat the natural and the social as two separate spheres To this we should also add that both responses reassert an age old divorce between city and country at the expense of the country and the gain of the city By the way let me stop here and address what might be a big protest in the mind of the reader I suspect that even when flashing images of production in the form of vertical farms and windmills the real anxiety beneath the image is about how we might sustain our first world consumption not create say a more bearable life for the actual human laborers that will compose the new rurban peasant class in these future cities let alone even think about what the future countryside will be like hint it ll be more brutal not less In addition the mode of thinking of green or ecological urbanism ultimately defends a hazy abstract idea of cities at all costs as inherently good for the planet And defends a notion of the world in which first world cities do not yield their place as the governators of finance power truth migrations ideas But let s continue The first of these responses in the architecture world is abstention This architecture imagines a world without humans Architecture therefore is our UFO for visiting a planet that we can only damage and we should not touch No surprise either that architects are so obsessed with documenting the design of post apocalyptic bunkers temporary military structures inflatables of all sorts and polar research stations no worry I love em too The second trend which seems to dominate architects imaginations nowadays even more is a strategy that attempts a metabolic relation with the planet supposing that idealized science as if science wasn t ideological can reveal the correct balance I admit my own enthusiastic participation in this trend too As much as anyone I still demand and expect a response to our modernity s crass relation to the environment Nevertheless the current architectural operations proposing this kind of benevolent cycling base their idea of nature on a nice Eden Have you ever seen any green architects show renderings of their green cities in the fall or winter or on a cloudy day or in any inclement weather for that matter This is no mere coincidence These ideas of nature are so rooted in the historic first world domestication of the rudeness of nature that their authors confuse socialized nature with primeval nature itself If we only let nature work it would give us everything we need to consume Did everyone think that so much lushness and farming envisioned in the city aren t going to open up new Pandora s boxes of infectious diseases and sanitation problems as we come into contact with more manure more bacteria and more wild animals that we urbanites are not at all naturalized to Of course that s all fine and dandy our powerful scientific establishment will hopefully take care of it but if you thought that inoculations would be fairly distributed to the urban world population think again This message brought to you by Pfizer Both of these architectural trends idealize nature as divorced from the economy society and politics Both think of nature as a self regenerating realm They distort history because they forget that nature has always been social starting with how as Donna Haraway among others has articulated the body itself inside and out has evolved through survival mechanisms necessitated by a larger totality Worse of all as Gissen also points out see Anxious Climate pdf architects in these camps seem to isolate in their minds the knowledge necessary for their design enterprise from what they know about the nature they conceptualize We have to ask ourselves how do we even know about the environmental crisis in the first place if not through the tools satellites computers genetic tests that reveal it These tools of course are part and parcel of the industrial revolution that brought on the crisis itself while at the same time strains of green architecture use them to measure flows of energy quantify wastes produce renderings and wire buildings throughout with the high tech communications that we demand As Gissen says In attempting to maintain an imagined separate natural world we have proliferated a messy network of links between nature and society Or in other words it s harder to isolate society from nature than what we want to think or shall we go on this voyage without navigation tools Of course some architects still latch onto that sort of radical back to nature primitivism As countless theorists have revealed we re dealing with a natural world that for some might seem implausible because of how artificial it actually is Another

    Original URL path: http://javier.est.pr/2009/04/04/architecture-imagined-as-ecological/?replytocom=311 (2015-12-27)
    Open archived version from archive